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Community managed latrines

Community managed latrines 6 Aug 2013 | Country: International | WaterAid

Community-managed latrines are technically very similar to individual latrines, except they are larger and serve a greater number of users. A range of sanitation systems can be used, including simple pits, pour flush latrines, urine separation and composting, as well as septic tanks and sewerage.
Gravity fed schemes

Gravity fed schemes 6 Aug 2013 | Country: International | WaterAid

A gravity-fed supply from a small upland river, stream or spring, impounded within a protected catchment, is an example of a sustainable water supply technology requiring no treatment. An additional benefit is that, using the force of gravity, water can be transported by pipework to tapstands placed near to homes, reducing the work involved in carrying water.
Hand dug wells

Hand dug wells 6 Aug 2013 | Country: International | WaterAid

The traditional method of obtaining groundwater in rural areas of the developing world, and still the most common, is by means of hand‑dug wells. However, because they are dug by hand, their use is restricted to suitable types of ground such as clays, sands, gravels and mixed soils where only small boulders are encountered. Some communities use the skill and knowledge of local well‑diggers, but often the excavation is carried out, under supervision, by the villagers themselves.
Handpumps

Handpumps 6 Aug 2013 | Country: International | WaterAid

The majority of people in the developing world gain access to groundwater either by means of a bucket and rope, or by using a handpump. Using a bucket and rope can be made easier if the well is provided with a windlass to help lift the bucket.
Protection of spring sources

Protection of spring sources 6 Aug 2013 | Country: International | WaterAid

Surface springs occur where groundwater emerges at the surface because an impervious layer of rock prevents seepage downwards or where the water table is high enough to intersect a depression in the local topography.
Rainwater harvesting

Rainwater harvesting 6 Aug 2013 | Country: International | WaterAid

Where there is no surface water, where groundwater is deep or inaccessible due to hard ground conditions, or where it is too salty, acidic or otherwise unpleasant or unfit to drink, another source must be sought. In areas that have regular rainfall, the most appropriate alternative is the collection of rainwater, called 'rainwater harvesting'.
Tackling the silent killer: the case for sanitation

Tackling the silent killer: The case for sanitation 1 Jul 2008 | Country: International | Author: Oliver Cumming

Inadequate sanitation may be the biggest killer of children under the age of five and yet it remains the most neglected of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sectors. Every year, 9.7 million children die before reaching their fifth birthday. This paper asserts that improved sanitation could bring the single greatest reduction in these deaths.
Ubran pit waste management

Urban pit waste management 6 Aug 2013 | Country: International | WaterAid

All pit latrines, septic tanks and aqua privies will eventually become full of accumulated sludge. Before construction starts, good designers will have made a decision as to whether or not the unit is to be emptied or moved. With septic tanks and aqua privies the decision is straightforward; they are designed to be emptied periodically. The decision for pit latrines is not so simple.