A Tale of Clean Cities: Insights for Planning Urban Sanitation from Ghana, India and the Philippines 2016

India, Toilets
A tale of clean cities
Image: Adam Ferguson

Learning from three cities that are performing well in sanitation: Kumasi in Ghana, San Fernando in Philippines and Visakhapatnam in India. Findings showed substantial but uneven progress along segments of the sanitation chain, and that the urban poor and those who live in challenging areas are being left behind. Common drivers of progress were: sanitation champions at the municipal level; national political influence; economic considerations; and support from development partners. Progress resulted from emerging opportunities; city sanitation planning was not a key determinant.