Titukulane is a five-year Resilience Food Assistance Activity (RFSA) funded by USAID through the Bureau of Humanitarian Assistance (BHA). Care is leading its implementation in a consortium comprising Emmanuel International (EI), International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), National Smallholder Farmers Association of Malawi (NASFAM), Save the Children, and WaterAid. The overall goal of Titukulane is to achieve sustainable, equitable and resilient food and nutrition security for 723,111 individuals in the hanging in, stepping in and stepping out households and communities in 20 Traditional Authorities in Mangochi and Zomba districts.

Women celebrating at a newly constructed borehole in Zomba
Image: WAterAid / Dennis Lupenga

In order to achieve the goal, Titukulane is implementing activities under three purposes as follows: Purpose 1, increasing stable and equitable incomes from agriculture and non-agriculture livelihoods for the underprivileged and destitute households and youths; Purpose 2, improving the nutritional status of children under five years of age, adolescent girls and women of reproductive age and Purpose 3, building institutional and local capacities to reduce risk and increase resilience among hanging in, stepping in and stepping out households.

Women at a borehole in Ngilengile village, Zomba.
Image: WaterAid / Ulemu Mbengwani

To ensure optimal benefits from nutrition specific interventions, Titukulane’s Theory of Change (ToC) aims at increasing the proportion of households with sustainable and improved basic drinking water supply and with improved sanitation and hygiene practices. This intervention involves investments in improvements in water services provision, rehabilitation and asset management systems, increasing household demand for and choice of sanitation and hygiene technologies and strengthening service provision and accountability systems.


  1. Market-Based Sanitation
  2. Governance and WASH systems strengthening
  3. Citizens’ participation through Community Score Card (CSC)
  4. Hygiene Behaviour Change through the Waliwali Hygiene Campaign
  5. Capacity development of project staff, government partners staff, and grassroots institutions
  6. Increasing access to sustainable, improved, and equitable drinking water sources with a basic access level
  7. Titukulane has also conducted lots of studies that have informed refining of the Theory of Change and redesign of the Project activities and implementation of its WASH-related activities
WASH budget analysis meeting.
Image: WaterAid / Ulemu Mbengwani


  1. Budget analysis and expenditure tracking, which has been shared with Donors, the media, other CSOs, Government Departments/Ministries, and Parliamentarians, among others
  2. Learning and Reflection from the CBM model, which has also influenced debate at the national sector level. The MoWS has since embarked on a national review of the CBM to explore how the CBM model could work better
  3. Development of the Zomba DSIP, to be launched in July this year (2023)
  4. Conduct quarterly water quality monitoring and develop action plans on findings, including feedback to user communities
  5. 53,362 people have access to safe clean water through rehabilitating 144 boreholes and the construction of 20 new BHs
  6. The Waliwali Hygiene campaign has had wide uptake, leading to the adoption of safe hygiene behaviors, like the construction and use of HH latrines across the 20 targeted TAs in Zomba and Mangochi
  7. To date, 401 Hygiene Promoters were trained in the Waliwali Clean Campaign
  8. Cumulatively, 73,540 people have been reached with Hygiene messages.
  9. Cumulatively, 12,056 HW facilities have been installed and 6,522 HH latrines have been constructed
  10. Titukulane supported the Mangochi and Zomba District Councils in responding to the cholera outbreak through community awareness